Category Archives: Technology

Most Amazing Concepts in Physics

By: Nikhil Malankar

 

Science deals with many aspects of our daily life. You start your day with the application of Science. Just take an example of the toothpaste you are using or the motion of a wave or even respiration. Everything relates directly or indirectly with Science. Science can be divided in the following parts.

  1. Physics
  2. Chemistry
  3. Math
  4. Biology

From the topic you must have understood that I am going to talk about Physics. OK Then, What concept do you find the most amazing? If you don’t find it on this list then you are welcome to say about it in the comments column. Let me start off with the list.

1. E=mc^2

We all know about this formula. It was introduced by one of the greatest scientists of all time .i.e. Mr. Albert Einstein. This concept is really interesting one and the debate about its correctness is still going on. It gave rise to other concepts like warped space and space time which are also very interesting and deep. It is a very controversial topic and I had also written an article related to this one. The link to it is:

http://scienceray.com/physics/einstein-some-really-interesting-fact-about-emc2/

2.Gravity

The most important concept given by Physics to mankind is the Gravity concept without which it would have been impossible to make rockets and other studies related to it. The most famous example to explain gravity was given by Sir Isaac Newton with his Apple Tree example. It is said that Newton was not the first one to observe the phenomenon of gravity but it was Galileo who first discovered it. Anyways, this concept caused a revolution and modern day physics is heavily dependent on this concept.

 

3. Space Travel

Few centuries ago it was impossible for mankind to think of such a concept. At that time we would have also not thought of travelling through Airplane but in today’s time everything is possible. Space Travel is a wonderful concept which has given rise to the discoveries of our solar system. Now it is also possible for humans to send computers in space to study our universe. Landing on the moon was possible due to this. It was history created and a new step made by man. So, Space Travel is also an amazing concept turned reality in Physics.

 

4. Time Travel

This has not yet turned into reality but I think that in the near future it will be possible to travel through time too. Many scientists think that time travel will make humans lazy or will cause some disturbance but one thing is sure that time travel will be possible and no one can stop such a great concept to turn into reality. Stephen Hawking also has given so many concepts related to time travel. You can read his book ‘A Brief History of Time’ or even watch his ‘Into The Universe’ which frequently comes on Discovery Channel.

 

5. The Black Hole

I think this is one of the most wonderful concepts in Physics. It is a perfect example of a Perfectly Black Body. The compression caused creates a high gravitational field around the dead star so that light also cannot escape from it. Light has a tremendous speed of 3 X 10^8 m/s and if it can’t escape from a black hole then imagine about the power it has! I personally think that light is not the fastest. I have thought over it for quite a while now and I think I am right about my previous statement. Using the concept of black hole it is possible to time travel but only in the future. So, Black hole is also an amazing concept.

These are 5 of my favorite and amazing concepts in Physics. Do you have anything more to share?

Is speed of light the maximum one can achieve?

By: Nikhil Malankar

 

What is the first scientific thought in your mind whenever you see a light source or a light beam from any source? Whenever I see a light beam the first thought or question arises in my mind is how can light have such a tremendous speed? The second thought which usually comes in my mind is that if light has such a tremendous speed, then can anyone travel more than the speed of light? The whole article is based on the same concept. I always wanted to clarify this doubt about light. I may go wrong somewhere while writing some concepts. If you find any mistake then do let me know about the same through your comments. Let’s start with the discussion.

We all know that the speed of light is 670616629mph to be precise enough. Take a simple example to understand my concept. The example goes as follows: Suppose you are travelling in a car with a speed of 5m/s. Now you want to travel at 6m/s. So, you pump in more fuel to go a little faster with a speed of 6m/s. But is this possible if you were travelling in a shuttle which is able to travel at the speed of light? Take a simple example again. Example is: Suppose you are travelling in a shuttle which is travelling at 670616628mph. Now you pump in more fuel to travel at 670616629mph which is the speed of light. Now you are travelling at the speed of light. But now is it possible to go further than this speed? Or is the speed of light is just ‘THE’ ultimate speed in the universe? As the speed of light is a ‘physical thing’ we also can’t see of increasing or decreasing it. But is there anything else which can travel with a further speed? If it is then what is it? Let’s go into some further details.

Suppose if we are able to travel at a speed greater than 1mph than that of light. Now the question is that will it affect the shuttle? If the shuttle does not get affected then is there a possibility to go at a further speed? If the shuttle does not get affected then what is the maximum speed one can achieve? If light is the upper limit then why is it so? How does it charge the particles at such a fast rate? And if we are able to travel at a greater speed than that of light than what should we call it? Here I would also like to bring one of the existing concepts of ‘Black-hole’. Black hole is such a powerful thing that it can also attract light which is supposed to have maximum speed. So, if Black-hole can attract at such a great speed then can’t we artificially create such a great speed? If the concept of Black hole actually exists then it is also possible to create such a speed which is also able to attract light. According to the theory of relativity, a Black hole is a region of space from which nothing, even light, can escape.  It is called black because it absorbs the entire light incident on it and it reflects nothing. It is a perfectly black body. The life span of a Black hole is infinitesimal but it keeps on multiplying itself at a very high pace. Black hole is also very small in size. But as it keeps on multiplying itself it turns out into a huge mass which attracts anything and everything. So, can’t we use this concept to create an artificial speed which is actually greater than that of light? It would be an ultra speed to travel. How can we use this in day-to-day life? Let’s see further.

If we are able to get a speed higher than that of light then a whole new dimension would open up. We would be able to discover the universe and those hidden mysteries about so many things. So many unanswered questions would have a justified answer. It would also help for advancements in technology and we can also find out if aliens exist or not. If anyone arrives on any conclusions using this piece of information please do let me know. Thanks for reading this article.

Removal of Trojan virus

By: Nikhil Malankar

 

I was just going to write the code for Trojan virus but then found out that there was already a code for Trojan Virus on Computersight.com. So, I decided to explain the working and removal of the code from the computer to help the better half of the world. The code for Trojan Space Eater Program can be found on:

http://computersight.com/software/space-eater-trojan/

Now, let’s see how it works.

The working:

The main purpose of this code is to ‘Eat Space’ and makes the hard disk virtually impossible to fill in more data. It follows 5 simple steps.

  1. Searches for the root drive where your copy of Windows is installed
  2. Goes to the folder ‘C:\Windows\System32\’
  3. Creates a file ‘spceshot.dll’ in that folder
  4. Fills that file with junk till your disk is full
  5. After your disk is full it stops the process

That’s it. It works on the above 5 steps and the removal of the code is also damn easy!

Removing the defects:

As I said that the program works in 5 steps and so the solution of the problem also lies in those 5 steps itself.

It is easy. Just have a look at these 5 steps and your computer will be free of this ‘so-called’ Trojan Space Eater.

  1. Go to ‘C:\Windows\System32\’ or in Run type %systemroot%\system32
  2. Search for the file ‘spceshot.dll’
  3. Delete that file!

That’s it!

But someone who does not know about this will keep on banging his head on his computer! 😀

And then he has no option other than to format his computer.

Hope this helped!

 

New Problem- ACTA

By: Nikhil Malankar

The Internet has defeated the SOPA and PIPA but do you know about something known as the ACTA? Well, in case you don’t know, ACTA stands for ‘Anti-Counterfieting Trade Agreement’. Let us take a look on what it is about and how it is misused by the Government to curtail our freedom of speech and expression.

What is ACTA about?
The ACTA is about protecting Trademark companies and intellectual properties. For example, you cannot start a company with the registered name of ‘Google Inc.’ or the likes. This offers a healthy protection of copyrights and provides a legally safe environment for both small and large corporations by protecting their trademarks. It is supposed to protect products against selling fake copies of branded products. For example, you cannot sell a Cola under the registered name of ‘Coca Cola’ or, say, ‘Pepsi’ because that damages the reputation of the respective companies. ACTA is supposed to protect patents and support artists to churn out high quality content. So, whats the problem? Its actually a great law. If you think about it this way then think again..

The Problem With ACTA:
Alrighty, sure ACTA is a great act for protecting copyrighted content and patents. But what will happen when the ACTA will be imposed on the Internet? Before giving the answer let me define counterfieting from the Oxford English Dictionary. Counterfieting is defined as the fraudulent imitation of something else. And when the ACTA will be imposed on the Internet you won’t be able to download files. Well, when you download a file you just download the exact copy of the original. In fact the file you downloaded is exactly the same and you have not stolen the original copy. The original copy is intact. Let me give you a more simple example. If you go to a computer class and learn some basics of computing. Now you want to share your knowledge with, say, your brother or sister. Now you are sharing your understanding of the knowledge gained from the classes with your siblings for free. But the twist here is that you are a criminal in terms of the ACTA. Since you just shared the information
that you learned from the computer classes. And also the ACTA criminalises your siblings for taking the knowledge from you.

But then this surely will help artists, right? WRONG!

An artiste will gain recognition for his/her work only when people watch them. If the act is imposed on the Internet then you would never be able to download movies for free.

Whats worse?
Social networking sites like Twitter and the likes and the video sharing giant YouTube will be the ones that will get most affected by ACTA since you would not be able to share your thoughts or upload a video expressing your views and stuff.

Its totally wrong!
Nowadays we use the Internet for almost everything. After ACTA you won’t be able to share photos, post status updates, upload/download videos. In short, the Internet will become a vast Wild West wherein you won’t be able to do anything. Sites like Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and even the Big G(Google) will have to shut down for the same reasons mentioned above. It violates freedom of speech and freedom of expression. If I don’t like, say ‘X’ Politician, then I have the full right to express my views on the same. The ACTA or no other act has the right to curb that.

Here is a prime example of how the author of SOPA Mr. Lamar Smith himself has violated his own act:


So, a personal request from GeneticWriters to all its readers: Please Google ‘ACTA’ and spread awareness among your friends to protest against this shit act which will snatch away our freedom of speech and expression.

You’ve got to find what you love

By: Nikhil Malankar

This is a excerpt from the Stanford University Speech of Steve Jobs, founder of one of the most successful companies of today i.e. Apple Inc. and also NeXT and Pixar. Its a tribute to Mr. Jobs. In this speech Steve Jobs explains his struggle and dreams becoming reality. The excerpts are as follows:

Today I want to tell you three stories of my life. That’s it. Just three stories. The first story is about connecting the dots. I dropped out of Reed College after the first 6 months, but then stayed around as a drop-in for another 18 months before I really quit. Looking back, it was one of the best decisions I ever made. I could stop taking the required classes that didn’t interest me, and begin dropping in on the ones that looked interesting.

I didn’t have a dorm room, so I slept on the floor in friends’ rooms. I returned Coke bottles for the 5 cent deposits to buy food with, and I would walk seven miles across town every Sunday night to get one good meal a week at the Hare Krishna temple. I loved it. And much of what I stumbled into by following my curiosity and intuition turned out to be priceless later on. Here’s one example: Reed College offered perhaps the best calligraphy instruction in the country. Because I had dropped out and didn’t have to take normal classes, I decided to take a calligraphy class. I learned about Serif and San Serif typefaces, about what makes great typography great.

Ten years later, when we were designing the first Macintosh computer, it all came back to me. And we designed it all into the Mac. If I had never dropped in on that course in college the Mac would have never had multiple typefaces or for that matter even proportionally spaced fonts.

And since Windows just copied Mac, it’s likely no personal computer would have them. Of course it was impossible to connect the dots looking forward when I was in college. But it was very clear looking backwards 10 years later.

You can’t connect the dots looking forward; you can only connect them looking backwards. So you have to trust that the dots will somehow connect in your future. You have to trust in something – your gut, destiny, life, karma, whatever. This approach has never let me down, and it has made all the difference in my life.

My second story is about love and loss. I found what I loved to do early in life. Woz (Steve Wozniak) and I started Apple when I was 20. In 10 years Apple had grown from just the two of us in a garage into a $2 billion company. And I got fired. It was devastating.

But something slowly began to dawn on me—I still loved what I did. And so I decided to start over.

The heaviness f being successful was replaced by the lightness of being a beginner again. It freed me to enter one of the most creative periods of my life.

During the next five years, I started a company NeXT, another company named Pixar, and fell in love with an amazing woman who would become my wife. Pixar is now the world’s most successful animation studio. Apple bought NeXT, I returned to Apple, and the technology developed at NeXT is the heart of Apple’s current renaissance. And Laurence and I have a wonderful family together.

Sometimes life hits you in the head with a brick. Don’t lose faith. The only way to do great work is to love what you do. If you haven’t found it yet, keep looking. Don’t settle.

My third story is about death.

About a year ago I was diagnosed with cancer. My doctor advised me to go home and get my affairs in order, which is doctor’s code for ‘prepare to die’. I lived with that diagnosis all day. Later that evening I had a biopsy. It turned out to be a very rare form of pancreatic cancer that is curable with surgery. I had the surgery and I’m fine now.

This was the closest I’ve been to facing death, and I hope it’s the closest I get for a few decades. Having lived through it, I can now say this to you; your time is limited, so don’t waste it living someone else’s life. Don’t be trapped by dogma — which is living with the results of other people’s thinking. Don’t let the noise of others’ opinions drown out your own inner voice.

And most important, have the courage to follow your heart and intuition. They somehow already know what you truly want to become.

When I was young, there was an amazing publication called ‘The Whole Earth Catalogue’. In the final issue, on the back cover they put a photograph of n early morning country road. Beneath it were the words: Stay Hungry, Stay Foolish. It was their farewell message as they signed off. I have always wished that for myself. And now, s you graduate to begin anew, I wish that for you. Stay Hungry, Stay Foolish.

-Steve Jobs

And once again from my personal side. Stay Hungry, Stay Foolish.

Rest In Peace Steve. We miss you!

My views on the Universe : Part 2

By: Nikhil Malankar

 

This article is the 2nd part of the series ‘My views on the Universe’. The first part was.  My Views on the Universe : Part One. So, I recommend you to first read the 1st part and then come to this 2nd part. Let me introduce you again to this series. This series is my imagination about how the universe actually is. So, without wasting much time let me start off with the topic.

My 2nd part of this series is based on an assumption that the Universe is The Internet! Interesting imagination, isn’t it? Now let’s correlate both of them.

Nobody of us knows that how big the Universe actually is. Whereas we do know how big the Internet is but still we can’t say definitely how big it is. The internet goes on expanding every hour, every minute, every second and every nanosecond because it is being continuously used by people worldwide. Many scientists say that the Universe also goes on expanding continuously. Just imagine that the Universe is The Internet.

Based on these assumptions we can say that the Universe has a definite size at a particular instant of time. But the size goes on increasing every moment. The same is with the Internet. Now here I would like to make a very bold statement. It is said that the Internet’s size doubles every 5.32 years and so the size of the Universe also doubles after a particular time. The time cannot be determined by us because we ourselves are a part of this big, wide network of Internet. Our Internet is comprised of many other things too! You can call them void spaces, trash, asteroids, etc. They are Flash programs. And as we know that the Internet is an open source of information so anyone can edit a part of the Internet. So, the story of our planet Earth is published on some website and accordingly everything is happening. The story is minutely detailed by a very good writer. So, you can imagine that the story of Earth is only a single webpage which has a finite start and a finite end. Every single detail from the formation of Earth to the last second of destruction of Earth is written in a detailed way with stories of our lives, etc. And now just imagine that if the story of our Earth is only a single webpage then what about the other planets, asteroids, black holes, etc.? Now you have to realize that the Universe is really very big and ever expanding and so we can say that if the Universe is The Internet then the information goes on increasing. That is, a new story is published every second! The story of other planets, aliens and every other thing in the Universe is written and published with all the details. If the link to this information is added to our Earth’s website then we come to know about them otherwise the story goes on.

And then as we know that there is no end for the Internet as it is ever-increasing. The information posted on the Internet (i.e. The Universe) cannot be changed! This means that the past cannot be changed. The only thing that can be done is to create a future. And I hope that whoever is the writer of Earth’s story has given it a beautiful future. Whatever has happened let it be. We can only hope for the future to be as good as possible.

So, this is the 2nd part of my imagination. Read more in the 3rd part or just have a look at the 1st part in case you have not read it yet. Click here to read the first part My Views on The Universe : Part One

My views on The Universe : Part 1

By: Nikhil Malankar

 

‘Universe’ is indeed very big and nobody knows exactly how big it is. I was just thinking about the same and then came across some amazing and interesting theories. So, I present you the ‘My views on The Universe’ series where I will tell you what I thought. Here is the first part of the same.

Okay! So, my first part is based on an assumption that the whole Universe is a game controlled by a computer. And there are many such games, i.e. there are many universes. So, if there is a computer then naturally someone has to control it. And that controller is the user of the computer. Now you can call that user ‘God’, super power, Supreme Intelligence or anything you want. This user has designed our universe and is controlling it on every step.

The Universe is very big for us but to the user it is finite. All the solar systems, galaxies, stars, etc. are small-small programs. You can consider them as mini games created by the user. And then we have the planets as the main part of the game where everything takes place from evolution of life to destruction of the same. The main part lies here! The user has programmed the life on planets in a very interesting way. He has also designed so-called ‘Aliens’. And to us Aliens are out of reach because the user has not given us enough privileges to discover them yet. May be if he desires to change our attributes then we will be able to reach the aliens. Each and everything is minutely detailed using the most complex physics calculations and the best game engine with the best computer processor. There are yet many things for us to discover which are given ‘hidden’ attributes. When the user will remove the attribute we will discover those facts and things.

The best creation of that user is ‘human’. He has given humans the most important and beautiful gift of intelligence with speech. Now you have to realize that speech without intelligence and intelligence without speech are useless! So, it is a plus point for humans.

The most interesting part comes now! Okay! So, we are a part of this game called The Universe. It is obvious that the characters in any game don’t know who their user is because they are designed to only think about the story of the game and they only do the work for which they are programmed. The same applies to us. If we are a part of this game then we, too, don’t know who is using us. But there is some user who is sitting there and controlling us. He is even updating, upgrading, fixing glitches of the game. The programming of the game is so good that it does not crash and if it does then it can cause havoc in the entire Universe.

The story of Universe is already decided and it is up to the user of the computer to lead it. So, the end of the Sun, Earth and various other planets can be a mission for the user. Sounds interesting, right? And then discovery of life of other planets also are missions.

Actually the game never ends. There is a lot of customization involved in it and can last till infinity if the user wants or he can simply delete the game. This can be related to the GTA series. The GTA series also does not end after all missions are complete. Instead we are free to roam around and do whatever we want. Same is with this Universe. It is up to the user.

So, this is the 1st part of my imagination. There is more to this series and I will post more parts soon. Till then just keep imagining what the next part will be about. Have a nice day!

How big is the Internet?

By: Nikhil Malankar

 

Well, you may have wondered about this question, haven’t you? The Internet is really massive. It is almost like a universe full of knowledge, exciting facts, time pass and java scripts, etc. Sometimes I just sit and imagine the expanse of The Internet. The exact size of the Internet cannot be determined as it grows every second. So, even if you blink your eye the Internet as grown by a large size. (Probably in TBs!) Let’s move on to know how big is the Internet actually and some amazing facts about it.

It is estimated that the total size of the Internet is larger than 1 yottabyte! Ok if you don’t understand what a yottabyte is then have a look at the following conversions:

Yottabyte            = 1 yottabyte
= 1024 zettabytes
= 1048576 exabytes
= 1073741824 petabytes
= 1099511627776 terabytes
= 1125899906842624 gigabytes
= 1152921504606846976 megabytes
= 9223372036854775808 Megabits
= 1180591620717411303424 kilobytes
= 9444732965739290427392 Kilobits
= 1208925819614629174706176 bytes
= 2417851639229258349412352 nibbles
= 9671406556917033397649408 bits

Now you know what a Yottabyte is. Fine. So, you can imagine how big the Internet actually is! Isn’t it so damn amazing? And just think! The Internet is growing every second. A research shows that The Internet doubles every 5 years(Moore’s Law applicable over here)! And it would take about 1 trillion years or even more than that to download the total content of the Internet with today’s fastest Internet connection available. The Internet is truly a man made wonder. Even if I have written this article then it is just 0.00001% of the total Internet or even smaller part than that. So, take pride even if you are 0.00001% of the space on Internet. There is so much of spam, junk and other unnecessary stuff on the Internet that makes it bigger by the second.

So, how did you find this article? I hope that this one made you rethink on the size of the Internet. On completing this article I realized that Internet has grown considerably and my article is a part of that growth. I am proud of being a part of this vast Internet!

The First Electric Current Theory

By: Gaurav Tiwari

//ok….thinking about what i have been since 8th grade….how did the universe all began and how was life created by amino acids molecules….i mean what caused them to combine and form DNA??….recently i got to know that electricity fundamentally consists of flowing of electrons from one point to another(may or may not be a back way)  and was responsible for “destabilizing” the molecules in the oceans filled with dissolved iron to form the perfect life forming recipe… and now starting with the funny language English… he he …lol//

Every once in a while we think about how the universe began and why did it began in the way we see it. One of the mysterious things in physics, which appears almost magical to me, is electricity. This blog is about the formation of the first electric current in nature. I am talking about the lighting we get in the rains. How does that begins? If we find the way or cause of lighting in our time it is certain that all the lightning in the universe began in the same way.

It was the day before the BEEE(Basic Electrical and Electronics Engineering! Phew! The abbreviation is better! 😀 ) exam. I was studying or almost completing my portion for the big test the next day. We had DC circuits and AC circuits as two important chapters in the book and I was passing my time reading the fundamentals of electric current. One thing led to another and I started thinking about the fundamental cause of electric current in any conductor. The answer is simple. Potential Difference. Potential difference causes the randomly moving electrons to flow from point at higher potential to point at lower potential. The current will flow till the PD doesn’t becomes zero. Hence for setting up electric current in any material we need to create a potential difference across it.

How do we create potential difference? By supplying electrons on the negative terminal to make it more negative and taking electrons from the positive terminal to make it more positive. But this also constitutes electric current. Hence the question of how did the first electric current was formed  hit me. The answer was hiding within the skies.

The air molecules in the sky move randomly move about in any free space available to them. In this process they often collide with each other. These collisions provide potential energy to the electrons in the air molecules.

We know that when a body (which is bound to another body due to various natural forces) gains potential energy and moves to a higher orbit. This state is often called the excited state. As a fundamental rule of all bodies that exist in universe the electron will definitely try to lose its potential energy. A ball when thrown upwards falls down because it tries to lose its potential energy. The same happens with the electron in the excited state. It tries to regain its orbit.

But we see that lighting often occurs from one cloud to another cloud and from a cloud to earth. This clearly shows that earth is at lower potential than the electron in excited state. The molecules or atoms on earth are comparatively immobile with respect to the molecules of air in the sky. The reason for that is gravity.

Now there are two ways the excited electron will behave. It will either fall towards the nucleus or move towards the earth.

There is a fundamental rule of the flow of current. It will preferably flow through the path which has low resistance. Hence if the electrons from the excited atoms in the sky are moving towards the earth it is certain that the air resistance suffered by the electrons is less than the resistance in the path which leads to the nucleus.

Now here comes the catch! What could possibly offer a resistance to the electron that is greater than the air resistance it goes through and makes it move the way it moves?

I think there are two possible answers to this.

One is Dynamic Screening Effect. And other is unknown resistance X.

I do not know whether the world knows about dynamic screening effect or something like that is ever used elsewhere. I created that word somehow.

We all know about the screening effect and what it does. Now suppose there is a bucket of water. I take a tumbler and take some water out of it. When the tumbler is removed the water molecules arrange themselves to take the shape of the bucket. Here water tries to regain its original arrangement thus minimizing the effect caused by removal of some of it by the tumbler. Consider another example. Around 7 billion people breathe oxygen every day. Every plant species gives out oxygen and takes in carbon dioxide. Many other processes tend to add and subtract some part of air. But the envelope of air around the earth remains in the shape as before.

Similarly when one electron is taken to a higher orbit other electrons in the electron cloud tend to minimize its effect by rearranging their positions. But the newly formed arrangement provides repulsion to the excited electron which is somewhat like the screening effect. Thus the electron suffers resistance in going back to the nucleus.

Now there are two questions to that thing. How does dynamic screening effect offers resistance more than air resistance? How does it explain lightning in the clouds of hydrogen where there is not enough electrons to build up the dynamic screening resistance?

By logic there has to be some kind of resistance. For hydrogen I can only think of an unknown resistance ‘X’.