By: Nikhil Malankar
Science deals with many aspects of our daily life. You start your day with the application of Science. Just take an example of the toothpaste you are using or the motion of a wave or even respiration. Everything relates directly or indirectly with Science. Science can be divided in the following parts.
From the topic you must have understood that I am going to talk about Physics. OK Then, What concept do you find the most amazing? If you don’t find it on this list then you are welcome to say about it in the comments column. Let me start off with the list.
We all know about this formula. It was introduced by one of the greatest scientists of all time .i.e. Mr. Albert Einstein. This concept is really interesting one and the debate about its correctness is still going on. It gave rise to other concepts like warped space and space time which are also very interesting and deep. It is a very controversial topic and I had also written an article related to this one. The link to it is:
The most important concept given by Physics to mankind is the Gravity concept without which it would have been impossible to make rockets and other studies related to it. The most famous example to explain gravity was given by Sir Isaac Newton with his Apple Tree example. It is said that Newton was not the first one to observe the phenomenon of gravity but it was Galileo who first discovered it. Anyways, this concept caused a revolution and modern day physics is heavily dependent on this concept.
3. Space Travel
Few centuries ago it was impossible for mankind to think of such a concept. At that time we would have also not thought of travelling through Airplane but in today’s time everything is possible. Space Travel is a wonderful concept which has given rise to the discoveries of our solar system. Now it is also possible for humans to send computers in space to study our universe. Landing on the moon was possible due to this. It was history created and a new step made by man. So, Space Travel is also an amazing concept turned reality in Physics.
4. Time Travel
This has not yet turned into reality but I think that in the near future it will be possible to travel through time too. Many scientists think that time travel will make humans lazy or will cause some disturbance but one thing is sure that time travel will be possible and no one can stop such a great concept to turn into reality. Stephen Hawking also has given so many concepts related to time travel. You can read his book ‘A Brief History of Time’ or even watch his ‘Into The Universe’ which frequently comes on Discovery Channel.
5. The Black Hole
I think this is one of the most wonderful concepts in Physics. It is a perfect example of a Perfectly Black Body. The compression caused creates a high gravitational field around the dead star so that light also cannot escape from it. Light has a tremendous speed of 3 X 10^8 m/s and if it can’t escape from a black hole then imagine about the power it has! I personally think that light is not the fastest. I have thought over it for quite a while now and I think I am right about my previous statement. Using the concept of black hole it is possible to time travel but only in the future. So, Black hole is also an amazing concept.
These are 5 of my favorite and amazing concepts in Physics. Do you have anything more to share?
By: Nikhil Malankar
Well, we all know who Jim Carrey is. Still I would like to introduce him for the sake of the length of my article . Jim Carrey is a Canadian comedian actor who has given us many hit films like ‘The Truman Show’, ‘Man on the Moon’, ‘Bruce Almighty’,’Ace Ventura’, ‘The Truman Show’ and many more. This man has been a strong force for the Hollywood since the 90’s. He has a really magnetic and energetic personality. That’s the reason why he inspires me.
Jim Carrey, he really is a funny man! You just can’t stop laughing when you look at him. He’s like a whole new body of work, energy, positivity, enigma and what not? According to me he is among the most confident people in this world. Why? Because it takes a lot of courage and power for one to make others feel happy and make them laugh. And there are really rare people like these. Rare people like Charlie Chaplin, Walt Disney, etc. are the ones because of which the world is still a paradise to live. Jim Carrey is like them.
His freestyle attitude and funny character makes him special. Recently Mr. Popper’s Penguins and I Love You Phillip Morris were really awesome movies and the respective characters were awesomely portrayed by him. Jim is a tough competition to many young actors. Won’t you agree?
Here I would like to share some videos of Jim Carrey with you which I found funny, inspiring and good. Have a look:
So, this is it! I wish Jim Carrey all the good luck for his life!
By: Nikhil Malankar
What is the first scientific thought in your mind whenever you see a light source or a light beam from any source? Whenever I see a light beam the first thought or question arises in my mind is how can light have such a tremendous speed? The second thought which usually comes in my mind is that if light has such a tremendous speed, then can anyone travel more than the speed of light? The whole article is based on the same concept. I always wanted to clarify this doubt about light. I may go wrong somewhere while writing some concepts. If you find any mistake then do let me know about the same through your comments. Let’s start with the discussion.
We all know that the speed of light is 670616629mph to be precise enough. Take a simple example to understand my concept. The example goes as follows: Suppose you are travelling in a car with a speed of 5m/s. Now you want to travel at 6m/s. So, you pump in more fuel to go a little faster with a speed of 6m/s. But is this possible if you were travelling in a shuttle which is able to travel at the speed of light? Take a simple example again. Example is: Suppose you are travelling in a shuttle which is travelling at 670616628mph. Now you pump in more fuel to travel at 670616629mph which is the speed of light. Now you are travelling at the speed of light. But now is it possible to go further than this speed? Or is the speed of light is just ‘THE’ ultimate speed in the universe? As the speed of light is a ‘physical thing’ we also can’t see of increasing or decreasing it. But is there anything else which can travel with a further speed? If it is then what is it? Let’s go into some further details.
Suppose if we are able to travel at a speed greater than 1mph than that of light. Now the question is that will it affect the shuttle? If the shuttle does not get affected then is there a possibility to go at a further speed? If the shuttle does not get affected then what is the maximum speed one can achieve? If light is the upper limit then why is it so? How does it charge the particles at such a fast rate? And if we are able to travel at a greater speed than that of light than what should we call it? Here I would also like to bring one of the existing concepts of ‘Black-hole’. Black hole is such a powerful thing that it can also attract light which is supposed to have maximum speed. So, if Black-hole can attract at such a great speed then can’t we artificially create such a great speed? If the concept of Black hole actually exists then it is also possible to create such a speed which is also able to attract light. According to the theory of relativity, a Black hole is a region of space from which nothing, even light, can escape. It is called black because it absorbs the entire light incident on it and it reflects nothing. It is a perfectly black body. The life span of a Black hole is infinitesimal but it keeps on multiplying itself at a very high pace. Black hole is also very small in size. But as it keeps on multiplying itself it turns out into a huge mass which attracts anything and everything. So, can’t we use this concept to create an artificial speed which is actually greater than that of light? It would be an ultra speed to travel. How can we use this in day-to-day life? Let’s see further.
If we are able to get a speed higher than that of light then a whole new dimension would open up. We would be able to discover the universe and those hidden mysteries about so many things. So many unanswered questions would have a justified answer. It would also help for advancements in technology and we can also find out if aliens exist or not. If anyone arrives on any conclusions using this piece of information please do let me know. Thanks for reading this article.
By: Nikhil Malankar
This is a excerpt from the Stanford University Speech of Steve Jobs, founder of one of the most successful companies of today i.e. Apple Inc. and also NeXT and Pixar. Its a tribute to Mr. Jobs. In this speech Steve Jobs explains his struggle and dreams becoming reality. The excerpts are as follows:
Today I want to tell you three stories of my life. That’s it. Just three stories. The first story is about connecting the dots. I dropped out of Reed College after the first 6 months, but then stayed around as a drop-in for another 18 months before I really quit. Looking back, it was one of the best decisions I ever made. I could stop taking the required classes that didn’t interest me, and begin dropping in on the ones that looked interesting.
I didn’t have a dorm room, so I slept on the floor in friends’ rooms. I returned Coke bottles for the 5 cent deposits to buy food with, and I would walk seven miles across town every Sunday night to get one good meal a week at the Hare Krishna temple. I loved it. And much of what I stumbled into by following my curiosity and intuition turned out to be priceless later on. Here’s one example: Reed College offered perhaps the best calligraphy instruction in the country. Because I had dropped out and didn’t have to take normal classes, I decided to take a calligraphy class. I learned about Serif and San Serif typefaces, about what makes great typography great.
Ten years later, when we were designing the first Macintosh computer, it all came back to me. And we designed it all into the Mac. If I had never dropped in on that course in college the Mac would have never had multiple typefaces or for that matter even proportionally spaced fonts.
And since Windows just copied Mac, it’s likely no personal computer would have them. Of course it was impossible to connect the dots looking forward when I was in college. But it was very clear looking backwards 10 years later.
You can’t connect the dots looking forward; you can only connect them looking backwards. So you have to trust that the dots will somehow connect in your future. You have to trust in something – your gut, destiny, life, karma, whatever. This approach has never let me down, and it has made all the difference in my life.
My second story is about love and loss. I found what I loved to do early in life. Woz (Steve Wozniak) and I started Apple when I was 20. In 10 years Apple had grown from just the two of us in a garage into a $2 billion company. And I got fired. It was devastating.
But something slowly began to dawn on me—I still loved what I did. And so I decided to start over.
The heaviness f being successful was replaced by the lightness of being a beginner again. It freed me to enter one of the most creative periods of my life.
During the next five years, I started a company NeXT, another company named Pixar, and fell in love with an amazing woman who would become my wife. Pixar is now the world’s most successful animation studio. Apple bought NeXT, I returned to Apple, and the technology developed at NeXT is the heart of Apple’s current renaissance. And Laurence and I have a wonderful family together.
Sometimes life hits you in the head with a brick. Don’t lose faith. The only way to do great work is to love what you do. If you haven’t found it yet, keep looking. Don’t settle.
My third story is about death.
About a year ago I was diagnosed with cancer. My doctor advised me to go home and get my affairs in order, which is doctor’s code for ‘prepare to die’. I lived with that diagnosis all day. Later that evening I had a biopsy. It turned out to be a very rare form of pancreatic cancer that is curable with surgery. I had the surgery and I’m fine now.
This was the closest I’ve been to facing death, and I hope it’s the closest I get for a few decades. Having lived through it, I can now say this to you; your time is limited, so don’t waste it living someone else’s life. Don’t be trapped by dogma — which is living with the results of other people’s thinking. Don’t let the noise of others’ opinions drown out your own inner voice.
And most important, have the courage to follow your heart and intuition. They somehow already know what you truly want to become.
When I was young, there was an amazing publication called ‘The Whole Earth Catalogue’. In the final issue, on the back cover they put a photograph of n early morning country road. Beneath it were the words: Stay Hungry, Stay Foolish. It was their farewell message as they signed off. I have always wished that for myself. And now, s you graduate to begin anew, I wish that for you. Stay Hungry, Stay Foolish.
And once again from my personal side. Stay Hungry, Stay Foolish.
Rest In Peace Steve. We miss you!
This article is the 3rd part of the series ‘My views on the Universe’. The first part was. My Views on the Universe : Part One and the second was My Views on The Universe : Part Two. So, I recommend you to first read the 1st part and 2nd part and then come to this 3rd part. Let me introduce you again to this series. This series is my imagination about how the universe actually is. So, without wasting much time let me start off with the topic.
This 3rd article is based on an assumption that the Universe is just a sheet of paper. Paper? How? Okay! Let me express myself. Read on.
Imagine that the Universe is just a paper. Paper has many uses and mostly it is used for writing and drawing. So, imagine that the Universe is sketched on a piece of paper. All the planets, meteoroids, stars, etc. are just drawings! This piece of paper is not too big but is very detailed. It has been sketched using a very fine pencil. Or should I say a rainbow pencil which adds a mixture of all the beautiful seven colors and their shades into this Universe. So, why does the Universe appear to be black? The answer is because most of the part is not colored yet J. It takes a lot of time to detail everything and so the artist of our Universe has decided to give colors only to the part which are important. The specialty of His art is that this paper turns its drawings to life within itself! And that’s why we have various life forms. But only those life forms exist which the artist has written at the back of the paper.
So, there is a 100% possibility that aliens exist. This artist has created only our Universe. There are many other artists who have sketched their imagination into their papers and created many Universes which can also be termed as parallel universes. One more thing is that this artist is never satisfied with is work and so he is always creating a new imagination and adding it to our Universe. So, our Universe is ever expanding.
We should praise the intellect of this artist who has created such a wonderful world! And we can learn an important lesson from his artist that ‘Never be satisfied! Satisfaction leads to rest and rest will never fetch you rewards’. So, keep on working and adding new feathers to your hat. And one day you will have your world as the Universe itself!
So, this was my 3rd part. Hope you liked it. In case you did not read my first 2 parts then their links are:
Add your valuable comments to let me know if you liked my article or not.
By: Nikhil Malankar
This article is the 2nd part of the series ‘My views on the Universe’. The first part was. My Views on the Universe : Part One. So, I recommend you to first read the 1st part and then come to this 2nd part. Let me introduce you again to this series. This series is my imagination about how the universe actually is. So, without wasting much time let me start off with the topic.
My 2nd part of this series is based on an assumption that the Universe is The Internet! Interesting imagination, isn’t it? Now let’s correlate both of them.
Nobody of us knows that how big the Universe actually is. Whereas we do know how big the Internet is but still we can’t say definitely how big it is. The internet goes on expanding every hour, every minute, every second and every nanosecond because it is being continuously used by people worldwide. Many scientists say that the Universe also goes on expanding continuously. Just imagine that the Universe is The Internet.
Based on these assumptions we can say that the Universe has a definite size at a particular instant of time. But the size goes on increasing every moment. The same is with the Internet. Now here I would like to make a very bold statement. It is said that the Internet’s size doubles every 5.32 years and so the size of the Universe also doubles after a particular time. The time cannot be determined by us because we ourselves are a part of this big, wide network of Internet. Our Internet is comprised of many other things too! You can call them void spaces, trash, asteroids, etc. They are Flash programs. And as we know that the Internet is an open source of information so anyone can edit a part of the Internet. So, the story of our planet Earth is published on some website and accordingly everything is happening. The story is minutely detailed by a very good writer. So, you can imagine that the story of Earth is only a single webpage which has a finite start and a finite end. Every single detail from the formation of Earth to the last second of destruction of Earth is written in a detailed way with stories of our lives, etc. And now just imagine that if the story of our Earth is only a single webpage then what about the other planets, asteroids, black holes, etc.? Now you have to realize that the Universe is really very big and ever expanding and so we can say that if the Universe is The Internet then the information goes on increasing. That is, a new story is published every second! The story of other planets, aliens and every other thing in the Universe is written and published with all the details. If the link to this information is added to our Earth’s website then we come to know about them otherwise the story goes on.
And then as we know that there is no end for the Internet as it is ever-increasing. The information posted on the Internet (i.e. The Universe) cannot be changed! This means that the past cannot be changed. The only thing that can be done is to create a future. And I hope that whoever is the writer of Earth’s story has given it a beautiful future. Whatever has happened let it be. We can only hope for the future to be as good as possible.
So, this is the 2nd part of my imagination. Read more in the 3rd part or just have a look at the 1st part in case you have not read it yet. Click here to read the first part My Views on The Universe : Part One
By: Nikhil Malankar
‘Universe’ is indeed very big and nobody knows exactly how big it is. I was just thinking about the same and then came across some amazing and interesting theories. So, I present you the ‘My views on The Universe’ series where I will tell you what I thought. Here is the first part of the same.
Okay! So, my first part is based on an assumption that the whole Universe is a game controlled by a computer. And there are many such games, i.e. there are many universes. So, if there is a computer then naturally someone has to control it. And that controller is the user of the computer. Now you can call that user ‘God’, super power, Supreme Intelligence or anything you want. This user has designed our universe and is controlling it on every step.
The Universe is very big for us but to the user it is finite. All the solar systems, galaxies, stars, etc. are small-small programs. You can consider them as mini games created by the user. And then we have the planets as the main part of the game where everything takes place from evolution of life to destruction of the same. The main part lies here! The user has programmed the life on planets in a very interesting way. He has also designed so-called ‘Aliens’. And to us Aliens are out of reach because the user has not given us enough privileges to discover them yet. May be if he desires to change our attributes then we will be able to reach the aliens. Each and everything is minutely detailed using the most complex physics calculations and the best game engine with the best computer processor. There are yet many things for us to discover which are given ‘hidden’ attributes. When the user will remove the attribute we will discover those facts and things.
The best creation of that user is ‘human’. He has given humans the most important and beautiful gift of intelligence with speech. Now you have to realize that speech without intelligence and intelligence without speech are useless! So, it is a plus point for humans.
The most interesting part comes now! Okay! So, we are a part of this game called The Universe. It is obvious that the characters in any game don’t know who their user is because they are designed to only think about the story of the game and they only do the work for which they are programmed. The same applies to us. If we are a part of this game then we, too, don’t know who is using us. But there is some user who is sitting there and controlling us. He is even updating, upgrading, fixing glitches of the game. The programming of the game is so good that it does not crash and if it does then it can cause havoc in the entire Universe.
The story of Universe is already decided and it is up to the user of the computer to lead it. So, the end of the Sun, Earth and various other planets can be a mission for the user. Sounds interesting, right? And then discovery of life of other planets also are missions.
Actually the game never ends. There is a lot of customization involved in it and can last till infinity if the user wants or he can simply delete the game. This can be related to the GTA series. The GTA series also does not end after all missions are complete. Instead we are free to roam around and do whatever we want. Same is with this Universe. It is up to the user.
So, this is the 1st part of my imagination. There is more to this series and I will post more parts soon. Till then just keep imagining what the next part will be about. Have a nice day!
By: Nikhil Malankar
Well, you may have wondered about this question, haven’t you? The Internet is really massive. It is almost like a universe full of knowledge, exciting facts, time pass and java scripts, etc. Sometimes I just sit and imagine the expanse of The Internet. The exact size of the Internet cannot be determined as it grows every second. So, even if you blink your eye the Internet as grown by a large size. (Probably in TBs!) Let’s move on to know how big is the Internet actually and some amazing facts about it.
It is estimated that the total size of the Internet is larger than 1 yottabyte! Ok if you don’t understand what a yottabyte is then have a look at the following conversions:
Yottabyte = 1 yottabyte
= 1024 zettabytes
= 1048576 exabytes
= 1073741824 petabytes
= 1099511627776 terabytes
= 1125899906842624 gigabytes
= 1152921504606846976 megabytes
= 9223372036854775808 Megabits
= 1180591620717411303424 kilobytes
= 9444732965739290427392 Kilobits
= 1208925819614629174706176 bytes
= 2417851639229258349412352 nibbles
= 9671406556917033397649408 bits
Now you know what a Yottabyte is. Fine. So, you can imagine how big the Internet actually is! Isn’t it so damn amazing? And just think! The Internet is growing every second. A research shows that The Internet doubles every 5 years(Moore’s Law applicable over here)! And it would take about 1 trillion years or even more than that to download the total content of the Internet with today’s fastest Internet connection available. The Internet is truly a man made wonder. Even if I have written this article then it is just 0.00001% of the total Internet or even smaller part than that. So, take pride even if you are 0.00001% of the space on Internet. There is so much of spam, junk and other unnecessary stuff on the Internet that makes it bigger by the second.
So, how did you find this article? I hope that this one made you rethink on the size of the Internet. On completing this article I realized that Internet has grown considerably and my article is a part of that growth. I am proud of being a part of this vast Internet!
By: Nikhil Malankar
2012 has started on a very good note for me since I just got cured from chickenpox and then all things are going perfect till now. Because of my illness I had to cancel some of my plans the previous year but luckily enough I got cured before the TechFest 2012. Now I won’t be whining further about my illness which would of course bore you but I’ll continue with what the post is actually about. So, yeah the TechFest! I’ve been using this word TechFest all the time. What exactly is this ‘TechFest’? Ofcourse, you guessed it right that it has to do something with Technology and Festival. Well, the TechFest 2012 is an annual College Festival of Indian Institute Of Technology – Bombay (IIT-B). First of all before proceeding with the info on the TechFest I’d like to give a short description to IIT-B.
IIT-B Main Building
IIT-B is located in Powai, Mumbai. It would not be wrong if I were to say that IIT-B is the ‘Indian Harvard’. Right from the awfully big campus to the scattered genius talent, everything reflected a bright atmosphere. An atmosphere that is way beyond a conventional education center. And I was like, ‘Whoa! What would it be like to be in such a great institute?’. But then even the most beautiful thing in this world has some flaws in it. And that would soon be realised by us in the coming hours. So, let’s get to the TechFest now! The day was 6th of January, 2012 when this magnificent campus had invited us to witness this Fest. The day started off with us reaching Powai and actually getting trapped in the ‘Entrance Test’. No! There was no official test to get an entry (Who would go to such a place then?) but we were confused about the entry to the campus. And then after asking here and there we finally found it in a matter of a mere 15 minutes. Anyways, we got in to find out that we had forgotten to take the Visitor’s card that was required for certain activities in the fest. After walking for almost an hour we had to go all the way back to the main gate to get the visitor’s card. How boring was that, buf!
Well, now we were in utter confusion! Such a big campus, so many things to do and ample amount of time. What to do? Sit four lectures? Eat? Keep walking and discover more of IIT? Or just sit at one place and wonder? Well, to be on safe side, we tried it all! First we were just randomly wandering here and there. Then we almost had entered a lecture hall and we also sat there but then they told us to wait outside and stand in that awfully long line! Duh, who would like to stand in a line after sitting on those comfy sofas? So, we went ahead. Kept walking in the almost seemingly infinite path to discover this ‘CricBot’. Cricket is a famous sport, for my American, Chinese and Japanese Bros and sis’. And ‘Bot’, well as we all know, Robot. So, basically it was a Robot which can play cricket. Participants assembled their robots and one by one came to display their seemingly overflowing knowledge. Extensive C++ codes and wires here and there plus a laptop in every student’s hand-made it seem like a perfect geek spot! So, we went inside and there the first participating group came. Unfortunately because of some technical difficulties the robot was working in a bizarre manner. Just think! Almost a year’s effort getting destroyed in front of your eyes in 10 minutes. Despite of the efforts the team only managed to make the robot twirl around and get itself tangled. Felt bad for those guys. Then came the second group. By this time our enthusiasm was almost finished so we waited for 15 minutes and left the hall to enter again the vast world of IIT.
After this we went to the Japanese exhibition wherein they had kept all the JapTech on display ranging from artistic vases to hybrid cars and PlayStation 2. Well, a time pass item.
Now we had already wasted a lot of time so we really wanted to do something. One of the friend in our group was really frustrated and wanted to go home. But then you can never actually leave your friends when you are in a group. You just can’t resist to be with the group. So, convinced that he would be convinced somehow we headed for the lecture. And yeah! Our conviction held true. Now we were heading to the lecture that would completely change the way we looked at life. It was about a 10 minute wait for the lecture and then we headed into this classroom that we had seen only in films and newspapers. Truly magnificent and sliding classrooms with ample space for walking and ample space for sleeping on the back benches.
So, the lecturer was Mr. Sugata Mitra, an Education Technology guy from MIT Media Labs. He explained us about his work that primarily focused on spreading education through computers and his research states that if a person can read then he can learn anything, and by anything I seriously mean anything ranging from basic arithmetic calculations to Einstein’s Theory of Relativity. Much of this concept depends on belief and creating curiosity within a child. He presented some awesome statistics that represented his research in the field from 1999-2002, 2002- 2006 and 2007 to present. Mr Sugata believes that if a child is provided with a computer and a broadband connection he/she can learn anything and everything as swiftly as the child who is attending that expensive school in the neighborhood. Not only this but you can even pretend to be a Doctor by just renting an apartment and putting up a signboard as ‘Dr. So&So’ and buy a nice desk plus a computer with a broadband
connection. This experiment carried out by Mr. Mitra, known as ‘The Hole In The Wall’ project, was a worldwide success. How cool would it be to never learn from a teacher, isn’t it? In simple words: You can teach yourself. I’ll give you a simple example for this. Now that you have read about Mr. Sugata Mitra, if you are interested in knowing more about him, you will directly contact your best friend ‘Google’ for more info on him. This means that you are teaching yourself about this person and adding to your knowledge. As simple as that. Truly mind-blowing speaker. I also got the opportunity to talk with him in person and appreciated his efforts in the field of Education Technology. Sugata Sir’s research has helped many students from rural India to England, America, Indonesia and many more.
The 2nd one from right in Black T-Shirt is Sugata Mitra Sir
After attending the lecture we were all charged up to sit for yet another lecture since, by now, we had realised that the lectures at IIT are truly magnificent. But then our stomachs had a different story to tell. So, we went to the cafeteria near the Hospital/Parking lot and ate. The next lecture that we wanted to attend was at 4.30 and it was 2.30 as of now. So, we did a lot of time pass strolling around here and there and then time went by swiftly.
Next was Simon Singh’s lecture. Simon Singh is the author of many best seller books and notably known for ‘Fermat’s Last Theorem’. 4.30 to 5.30 and that was his lecture. Truly magnificent. Manas has posted his experience about Simon’s Lecture. Here I’ll provide some snaps of him.
The one in the Mohawk is Simon Singh
Oh and after the lecture got over it was almost 6 PM. And we had to rush now or else we would reach home late since the college was far away from our residences. And well, would not like to share the travelling experience back home. We were CRUSHED in that jam packed bus! Anyways, signing off.
Well, that’s the way we roll!
I hope you enjoyed reading this post. Comments welcome!